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Subjonctivul in engleza

Modul subjonctiv in engleza se foloseste in urmatoarele cazuri:
   o actiune posibila in viitor
   o actiune nerealizata in trecut sau prezent
   o recomandare, un sfat

Subjonctivul in engleza se formeaza cu :

I. infinitivul scurt al verbului

1) dupa constructii ca: It is necessary, It is advisable, It is recommendable, It is possible, It is unsure, It is probable (formulari ca si "He/she recommends", "He/she advices", "He/she requests" );

2) in propozitii de scop (so that ...); ex.: She did her work so that she can watch the movie with us.

3) in propozitii concesive ( however ... ); ex.: I help my brother however much it costs.

4) in exclamatii afective: ex.: Bless you !

5) in formule (infinitiv scurt):
    Long live the queen. (Trăiască regina!)
    So be it. (Aşa să fie.)
    Suffice it to say. (Este suficient de zis.)
    Be that as it may. (Fie ce o fi.)
    Come what may. (Fie ce o fi.)

    Say what you will. (Spune ce vrei.)

II. Forma de "Past Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima:

1) un regret prezent
    I wish I could go with you.
    If only he called me!
    If only I had heard about the concert!

2) ceva ce e ireal in prezent (cu constructiile "as if", "as though");

3) preferinta (cind se folosesc constructiile "would rather/ sooner", "it is time", "had better", "I'd prefer").
    You had better do your homework.
     Id prefer if he comes with me.

III. Forma de "Past Perfecte Tense" a verbului, pentru a exprima un regret cu privire la o actiune anterioara timpului din propozitia principala:
      ex.: I wish(ed) you had called me.


IV. Alte forme de imperativ:
      Somebody turn the lights off!
      Come on, hurry up!

V. Dupa verbe ce exprima dorinta ca cineva sa realizeze o actiune: ask, advise, desire, intend, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, want; dupa verbe ce exprima planuri: arrange, leave word, pland; after adjectives expressing feelings: anxious, willing, eager, pleased, glad.

    They requested that the bus come at four pm.
    I planned that they should visit the hotel beforehand.
    We were anxious that our parents should watch this movie.

VI. Cu "may/might"
      May you live long ! 
      However long the way might be, we must go there.

Alte observatii privind subjonctivul in engleza:

1) in constructiile cu "for + subiect" se foloseste forma lunga a infinitivului:
       It's time for him to leave.

2) "if need be" inseamna "if it is necessary"
       If need be I can always come over.

 

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